1. Read the passage carefully: Before attempting the questions, make sure you understand the main argument or claim being presented in the passage. Identify the author’s stance, the evidence provided, and any assumptions or gaps in reasoning.

2. Understand the question stem: Pay close attention to the wording of the question stem. Is it asking you to identify information that would strengthen or weaken the claim? Or is it asking about the assumption underlying the argument? This will guide your thought process.

3. Look for gaps and assumptions: As the approach suggests, look for gaps, holes, or assumptions in the argument presented in the passage. These are often areas where additional evidence or reasoning could either strengthen or weaken the argument.

4. Evaluate the answer choices: Carefully read each answer choice and consider how it relates to the claim or argument in the passage. Would that information help to fill a gap or provide additional support? Or would it introduce a counterpoint or contradiction that weakens the argument?

5. Watch out for decoys: Be cautious of answer choices that contain similar wording or concepts to the passage but don’t directly address the claim or argument in question. These are likely decoys meant to distract you.

6. Use process of elimination: If you’re unsure between two or more answer choices, try to eliminate the ones that are clearly incorrect or less relevant. This can help you narrow down to the best option.

7. Time management: As mentioned, these questions can be time-consuming, so it’s often a good idea to skip them initially and come back to them later. This way, you can ensure you have enough time to fully concentrate on them without rushing.

8. Practice, practice, practice: The more you expose yourself to these types of questions and practice identifying claims, arguments, and supporting or weakening evidence, the better you’ll become at recognizing patterns and effectively tackling them on the actual test.

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