Sat exam 2-b


exam 3

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1. Scientist Albert Einstein and physicist Leo Szilard were responsible for writing the Einstein-Szilard letter, a document that ______ the potential dangers of nuclear energy and was sent to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Which choice most logically completes the text?

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2. Birds tend to prefer brighter-colored berries, yet the plants that produce these berries have evolved to produce fruit with less vibrant colors. A recent study _______ why: producing pigments for bright colors can be costly for plants in terms of energy, and it is more advantageous for plants to produce a greater quantity of less colorful berries than fewer, more colorful ones. Which choice most logically completes the text?

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3. Particles within a cyclotron, another type of circular particle accelerator, gain speed until they ______ a specific momentum, at which point they are guided to collide with a target material, causing nuclear reactions. Which choice most logically completes the text?

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4. The common mango (Mangifera indica) originates from a wild plant native to Southeast Asia. However, it is also found in the Caribbean islands, where evidence shows that indigenous peoples were cultivating the plant long before European explorers arrived. To explain how mangoes were introduced in the Caribbean, botanist Jose Ramirez and his team examined the DNA of numerous mango varieties and determined that Caribbean mangoes diverged from Southeast Asian ones over 12,000 years ago. Given that European contact with the Caribbean occurred roughly 500 years ago, the team concluded that _____. Which finding, if true, would most logically complete the text?

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5. For over a century, the only known evidence of aephyronetid spiders – an extinct family of spiders – came from fossils found in Europe. In a recent discovery that broadens our knowledge of the geographical distribution of these spiders, paleontologist Nancy Smith and her team have identified fossilized remains of a new species of aephyronetid, Asperinatus websteri, in North America. According to the text, why was Smith and her team’s discovery of the Asperinatus websteri fossil significant?

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6. In the Amazon Rainforest, there is a giant fungus called Armillaria solidipes that stretches across more than 2.4 acres. This fungus is considered to be one of the largest living organisms by area on Earth. However, scientists are concerned that deforestation could negatively impact its growth and potentially lead to its destruction. According to the text, why are scientists worried about Armillaria solidipes?

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7. Text 1
Archaeologist Anna Green and colleagues analyzed the pollen content in soil samples from a prehistoric site to determine the types of vegetation present during the Neolithic period. Their findings reveal evidence of extensive deforestation, suggesting that early human agricultural practices had a significant impact on the ancient environment.
Text 2
In their analysis of prehistoric pollen records, botanists Peter White and Sarah Brown argue that previous studies overemphasize the role of agriculture in shaping early landscapes. They claim that natural disturbances like forest fires and shifts in climate patterns played a critical part in altering vegetation, and these forces should also be taken into account. Based on the texts, how would White and Brown (Text 2) most likely characterize the conclusion presented in Text 1?

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8. Visual artist Frida Kahlo often used self-portraits as a means of expressing her personal experiences and emotions. In her painting "The Broken Column" (1944), Kahlo depicts herself with a split torso, revealing a spinal column resembling an Ionic column which refers to her own physical pain after a devastating bus accident. The painting also incorporates the motif of nails piercing throughout her body and face—an indication of the emotional turmoil she endured at that time. Which choice most effectively restates the main purpose of the text?

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9. The following text is adapted from George Eliot’s 1871 novel Middlemarch. The speaker, Dorothea, is pondering the significance of her unfulfilled dreams upon realizing that they might never be achieved. If I dared to hope for anything great, it was because I regarded my dreams as something sacred: but now, I have lost confidence in what I once held as my guiding star. It seems almost like a cruel mockery that I even entertained such lofty aspirations, yet here I am—unable to let go of those very dreams that haunt me. Which choice most logically completes the text?

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10. The following text is from the 1954 short story "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber. The mild-looking man with the protruding jaw and false mustache in his buttonhole, was to all appearances just another spectator—when the girl at the counter handed him his change, they noticed the violet sapphire that glittered in his ring. He straightened his overcoat and started for the door, his thin gloves wiping the sweat from his brow—under the very eyes of a dozen policemen, their suspect had made his escape… Which choice best states the main purpose of the text?

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11. In The History of Love (2005), author Nicole Krauss explores the theme of human connection through the intertwining narratives of two lonely characters who eventually discover their unexpected links to one another. Which choice best restates the completion in the text?

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12. Screenwriter Maya Sharma chooses not to ______ the norms of romantic comedy films in her work, stating that her audience appreciates her refusal to adhere to predictable storylines and clichéd characters. Which choice best restates the completion in the text?

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13. Dancer and choreographer Sonia Carranca's ______ her two interests—flamenco dance and contemporary expression—manifests in her 2021 production, Unveiled, which skillfully intertwines traditional flamenco moves with modern interpretive elements. Which choice best restates the completion in the text?

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14. A growth in a rose plant's stem may indicate the presence of bacterial infection. A ______ rose plant, however, displays erect stems with no visible signs of deformity or discoloration. Which finding, if true, would most directly support the completion of the text?

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15. To investigate the relationship between urban development and air quality in European cities, environmental scientists Miranda Shaw and James Thorne from Royal Holloway University collected data on nitrogen oxide levels and construction projects. They compared the data with historical air quality records and discovered a correlation between increased construction activity and nitrogen oxide pollution.
The student wants to emphasize the purpose of the research study. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

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16. The Oromo, an ethnic group native to Ethiopia and Kenya, have a rich history rooted in East African traditions. In order to promote cultural awareness and preserve their heritage, Asfaw Bayissa and Nadifo Mohamed, both of Oromo descent, founded the Oromo Cultural Center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in 2010.
The student wants to emphasize the longevity and objectives of Bayissa's and Mohamed's work. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

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17. Maya Angelou, a renowned American poet and civil rights activist, published her first autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings in 1969. Prior to becoming an acclaimed writer, Angelou was involved in various acts of civil rights activism and worked with prominent leaders like Martin Luther King Jr.
The student wants to introduce Angelou's first autobiography. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

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18. During the Industrial Revolution, rural populations rapidly shifted to cities in search of employment opportunities. This urbanization led to overcrowded housing conditions and poor sanitation facilities, resulting in an increased spread of disease. Nowadays, while urban living conditions have improved, there are ongoing efforts to maintain public health in densely populated cities.
The student wants to highlight the relationship between urbanization and public health during the Industrial Revolution. Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

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19. While researching for a presentation about Leonardo da Vinci, an Italian polymath of the Renaissance era, a student took several notes about his artwork, The Last Supper, painted between 1495 and 1498. The mural showcases Jesus Christ with his apostles during the Last Supper, before his crucifixion. It is housed at the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy. The painting is famous for its intricate detail and lifelike representations of the figures. The student wants to describe The Last Supper to an audience unfamiliar with the painting.
Which choice most effectively uses relevant information from the notes to accomplish this goal?

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20. The phylum Chordata includes a subphylum of vertebrates that are cold-blooded, meaning they cannot regulate their body temperature internally. Many reptiles _____ belong to this subphylum.
Which choice completes the text with the most logical transition?

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21. The detailed portrayal of landscapes, trees, and animals in the artworks by Indigenous Australian painter Sally Harrison make them seem like intricately detailed drawings from a distance. It appears as if only a fine pencil could have produced them. However, upon closer examination, the artworks reveal themselves to be ______ with layers of colorful dots forming each detailed element.
Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?

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22. Often called the "queen of rock" by fans, Patti Smith has been mentioned in countless articles under this nickname since the 1970s. However, Smith herself rejected the queen _____ arguing that it did not convey her love for various genres of music and preferred to be known as a "punk poet laureate".
Which choice completes the text so that it conforms to the conventions of Standard English?

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23. Usually, scratches, dents, and wear on an antique item reduce its value for collectors. However, ______ the item once belonged to a famous historical figure like Abraham Lincoln, such imperfections may be considered signs of authenticity and therefore make it more valuable.
What would complete the text so that it is in accordance with the rules of Standard English?

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24. Dr. Susan Thompson, a renowned astrophysicist, is celebrated for her contributions to the development of the Interstellar Travel Guide, which _______ advanced mathematical models for space exploration beyond our solar system.
What would complete the text so that it is in accordance with the rules of Standard English?

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25. Chemists Laura Smith, Greg Johnson, and Leila Fisher led a research team to study the chemical reaction that allows certain plants to produce oxygen in low-light environments. They replaced the enzyme LUC1 in these plants with a similar enzyme from a different species (fern) that doesn't have the ability to produce oxygen in low-light conditions. Comparing unmodified plants with the altered ones showed no difference in oxygen production under normal light. However, in low-light conditions, the unmodified plants continued to produce oxygen, while the altered ones did not, which indicates that _______
What would be the most logical completion of the text?

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26. When studying certain artifacts found at an ancient city site in the Mediterranean region, archaeologists noticed that part of the collection of artifacts dated back to the 7th-century BCE, while others had characteristics typical of 6th-century BCE. If both dates of the artifacts are accurate, that would imply that _______
What would be the most logical completion of the text?

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27. In ancient Rome, the construction techniques of monumental public buildings displayed striking similarities to those used in Greek architecture. However, it seems that most Roman architects had limited firsthand experience with Greek structures. Unless one assumes that these architects independently developed techniques already used by Greek architects, this most strongly implies that _______
What would be the most logical completion of the text?

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