Sat exam 3-b

Reading and Writing

exam 4

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1. When analyzing the development of 20th-century industrial design principles, scholars have observed different approaches. Some argue that these design principles primarily resulted from technological advancements and engineering innovations, while others attribute them to cultural and aesthetic changes that reflected the zeitgeist of that period.
What discovery, if confirmed, would most immediately support the argument considering cultural and aesthetic influences?

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2. Archeologists have theorized that early human communities relied primarily on hunting and gathering for their sustenance. Stone tools found at various sites appear to be specifically crafted for hunting animals and processing edible plant matter. However, it has also been suggested that fishing may have played a significant role in some communities.
Which discovery, if confirmed, would most immediately weaken the archeologists' initial assertion?

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3. In a research paper, a student argues that authors of biographies focusing on the personal lives of notable female scientists have often primarily portrayed their subjects based on the socio-cultural expectations of their time. These biographies overlooked the significant scientific achievements and contributions made by these women.
Which quote from a biography would best represent the student's claim?

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4. Architects Sarah Jones and Thomas Lee designed a unique, sustainable treehouse in a remote part of Canada, blending aesthetics with environmental consciousness in more practical ways. The treehouse features elements such as solar panels for energy generation and a rainwater collection system to decrease its ecological impact. Visitors who have stayed in the treehouse for extended periods have reported not only an enhanced connection with nature but also improvements in overall well-being.
What would be the best way to express the main idea of the text?

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5. The passage extracted from Charles Dickens' novel 'Great Expectations' offers an intriguing glimpse into the life of Pip, an orphan living with his sister, Mrs. Joe, and her husband, Joe Gargery. Despite his humble upbringing, Pip demonstrates an innate sense of kindness and thoughtfulness that sets him apart from others. His ability to empathize with people in difficult situations allows him to maintain strong relationships within his small family unit and beyond.
Based on the text, which of these statements is true about Pip?

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6. Oceanographers claim that the coral reefs in the Great Barrier Reef will eventually suffer from rising sea temperatures and may ultimately face extinction. The precise timeline of this event, however, remains unknown due to the unpredictable nature of climate change and its impact on the reefs. Marine biologist Helena Jameson and her colleagues attempted to analyze the vulnerability of the Great Barrier Reef by studying the ocean's temperature patterns. However, their research could not provide definitive predictions regarding the reef's fate for the coming decades.
Which function does the second sentence best serve in the overall narrative of the text?

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7. A Collection of Verses Translated from Spanish Sonnets (1901), a book containing English translations of Spanish poems by renowned linguist Alice Gomez, _______ researchers' appreciation for the elaborate connections between languages and the cultural contexts in which Gomez lived and worked.
Which choice completes the text to adhere to the conventions of Standard English?

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8. Mars, despite having similarities to Earth, is less predictable when it comes to its soil composition, as noted by planetary geologist Helen Smith. The presence of highly reactive chemicals in Martian soil implies that the planet's chemistry is significantly different from Earth's. Therefore, before settling on Mars, scientists must first carefully study its soil and unlock its numerous secrets, as the success of colonization _______ on our understanding of such perplexities.
Which choice completes the text to adhere to the conventions of Standard English?

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9. In 2015, France introduced fines for venues selling food and beverages that fail to separate organic waste from general trash. This policy led to an increase in recycling rates, especially among restaurants and cafes. At first, the amounts of organic waste collected rapidly grew by roughly sixty _______ such policies tend to experience a phenomenon known as the “plateau effect”. As people become more familiar with the policy, the rapid growth rate in recycling levels tends to slow down.
Which choice completes the text to adhere to the conventions of Standard English?

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10. Typically, scribbles, doodles, and notes left in the margins by a previous reader detract from a book's ______ Except in instances where the previous reader was an important historical figure, such as Abraham Lincoln, in which case these markings, known as marginalia, may hold significant interest for historians.
Which choice completes the text in line with the conventions of Standard English?

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11. James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish physicist and mathematician, is renowned for his contributions to electromagnetism, primarily the publication of A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, which ______ fundamental equations for the electric and magnetic field.
Which choice completes the text to conform to the conventions of Standard English?

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12. A group of scientists led by Dr. Laura Green, studying the communication patterns of honeybees (Apis mellifera), endeavored to understand if any factor influences their waggle dance, a behavior that indicates the location of food resources to other bees. They altered the environmental light exposure of one group of honeybees, while keeping another group unmodified. Both groups exhibited similar waggle dances under the same circumstances except when exposed to ultraviolet light: the modified bees reacted differently than the control group. This suggests that ______
Which choice most logically completes the text?

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13. If the pottery fragments excavated from the ancient city of Ebla, located in present-day Syria, date back to the third millenniA) BCE, it could support the theory that trade between Ebla and other civilizations was established around this time. However, significant evidence also suggests that trade relations started around the second millenniA) BCE. If both the artifact dates and the second millenniA) BCE trade claims are accurate, it may imply that ______
Which choice most logically completes the text?

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14. In ancient Mesoamerica, the Maya civilization developed sophisticated mathematical concepts and writing systems. Some early Spanish settlers in Central America learned these systems, despite not living in close proximity to the Maya centers. If we rule out the chances of these settlers independently developing identical systems, it strongly suggests that ______
Which choice most logically completes the text?

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15. During the nineteenth century, anthropologists extensively documented Native American legends and folklore. However, they often disagreed on the primary influence behind these tales. While some researchers argued that they originated from ancient native cultures, others claimed that European settlers played a significant role in their development. This debate centered on whether the legends were more reflective of indigenous beliefs or the result of cultural exchange.
Which piece of evidence, if true, would most directly support the view that these legends were heavily influenced by European settlement?

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16. Recent geological and climate research suggests that Earth's continents were once part of a single landmass called Pangaea. These studies propose that tectonic forces gradually pulled this supercontinent apart, creating individual continents with distinct climates and ecosystems. If true, the distribution of flora and fauna among these continents should share some similarities.
Which finding, if true, would most directly oppose this theory?

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17. In a scholarly article, a researcher criticizes some biographers of famous composers, arguing that these biographers frequently analyze the life events of composers in order to explain the inspiration behind their musical works instead of focusing on the composition process itself.
Which quotation from a biographer would best illustrate the researcher’s point?

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18. Renowned architect Frank Gehry believes that uniquely designed buildings can influence the way people perceive and interact with their environment. His innovative structures, such as the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, incorporate curving, non-linear forms and unconventional materials. Visitors have often reported feeling inspired and engaged when experiencing these spaces.
Which choice best summarizes the main point of the text?

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19. In William Shakespeare's play "The Merchant of Venice," Portia is a wealthy, intelligent, and resourceful woman who is desired by many suitors. In order to find a worthy husband, she adheres to her late father's will, which states that any suitor must correctly choose from three caskets; one made of gold, another of silver, and the third of lead. Portia's father believed this method would ensure his daughter would marry a man who was wise and valued more than riches.
According to the text, what can be inferred about Portia's father?

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20. Meteorologists believe that climate change will lead to more frequent and intense storms, but forecasting the precise nature of these storms remains difficult due to the chaotic nature of Earth's atmosphere. Climate scientist Dr. Emily Green and her team used advanced computer simulations to try to determine storm patterns, but their findings were inconclusive.
Which choice best describes the function of the second sentence in the overall structure of the text?

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21. In Charles Dickens’ novel "A Tale of Two Cities," readers are introduced to a scene where an old man sits by the fireplace in his small house, peering intently at a young girl playing the piano in the corner. Outside, the streets of Paris are bustling with people and carriages, creating a stark contrast to the calm atmosphere within the house.
Which choice best states the main purpose of the text?

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22. Animal behaviorist Dr. Jane Goodall observed that while there is an abundance of research focused on the social behavior of primates living in groups, there is a notable _______ of research on the behavior of solitary primates.
Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

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23. Guitarist Carlos Santana's expressive playing style draws inspiration from a variety of ________ musical influences. His work combines elements of Latin jazz, traditional African rhythms, and American blues to create a unique sound that captivates listeners worldwide.
Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

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24. Urban planners often assume that the use of public transportation has a _______ effect on traffic congestion, as more people opt to take buses and trains instead of driving their personal vehicles. However, a recent study conducted in several major cities found that increased public transportation ridership did not always correlate with reduced traffic congestion.
Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

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25. In the field of architecture, designers often draw inspiration from nature's inherent beauty and efficiency. They may _______ natural forms and materials to create structures that are not only visually appealing but also sustainable and eco-friendly.
Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

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26. The symbiotic relationship between pollinators and plants is essential for the survival of both species. Pollinators, such as bees, help _______ pollen from the male parts of a flower to the female parts, resulting in fertilization and fruit production. In return, pollinators benefit from consuming the nectar produced by the plants.
Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

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27. In a parliamentary system of government, the prime minister is responsible for forming a cabinet and overseeing its decisions. While the prime minister holds significant executive power, their actions and policies are subject to the scrutiny and approval of the _______ branch, which enacts and amends laws.
Which choice completes the text with the most logical and precise word or phrase?

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